唯有孤独恒常如新

Elizabeth Bishop, PHOTO / Paris Review

明日,大家来聊贰个骚人,和一首诗。

伊Lisa白·毕晓普(伊Lisa白Bishop),曾被誉为U.S.A.20世纪最宏伟的小说家之一。

伊Lisa白·毕肖普(1914年八月三十日-一九八零年四月十七日),美利坚合众国盛名女小说家。她是美利坚联邦合众国一九四九-一九五零寒暑的桂冠作家,并于1957年获老舍文学奖。代表作为《北方和南方——贰个冰凉的春季》。

维基百科

他曾是U.S.的桂冠小说家(Poet Laureate);杂文荣获雨果奖(the Pulitzer
Prize
);小说集得到米利坚国家图书奖(the National Book Award)。

她随身具备各样各类的光环,得到了数不尽数的光荣,然而却告诉同为小说家的爱侣罗Bert·洛Will(罗伯特Lowell)说:「在本身的铭文上,一定要写下本身是大地最孤独的人」。

In 1974, Elizabeth Bishop seemed to have all the things a poet could
want: a teaching position at Harvard, a Pulitzer Prize, a National
Book Award, and a first-look contract with The New Yorker, which
almost always decided to publish her work. And yet she was
inconsolably unhappy. “When you write my epitaph,” Bishop said to
the poet Robert Lowell, “you must say I was the loneliest person who
ever lived
.”

  • “Hiding in Plain Sight: The loneliness of Elizabeth Bishop”, *The
    Nation

epitaph,墓志铭。

他大致全体了1位小说家可以具有的全方位荣耀,却偏偏要说:「When you write my
epitaph, you must say I was the loneliest person who ever lived. 」

小编猜,那大致也是干吗,她散文的国语译本取名为《唯有孤独恒常如新》。

豆类读书

伊Lisa白·毕晓普如此分明的孤独感终究从何而来?

他出世于美利坚合营国麻省,是家中独女,才半年时公公便因归西世。婆婆随即患上精神疾病,在毕晓普5岁时,二姨被吓唬永久关进精神病院,从此二个人再未遇到。

经历了生离与死别之后,她被外祖父母收养,在加拿大生活了几年。但鉴于这二老家境困难,她的祖父母随后得到监护权,将她从加拿大小镇接回美利坚合众国麻省。但毕晓普驰念外祖父外祖母,整日提心吊胆,甚至患上气短。后来,曾祖父外婆便将他送往了姨父姨母家中。

小毕晓普的幼时,就那样翻来覆去于3个又二个亲朋好友的家园,时期还遭到了姨父的性骚扰与虐待。也正因如此,她对男性充满了厌烦与害怕(嗯,没错,她是同性恋)。

因为那段经历,在此后写给她的精神科医务卫生人员的信中,毕晓普甚至说道,全数的男性都以损公肥私阴毒的,只要有机会,他们肯定会耽误女性。

Bishop later wrote to her psychiatrist. “I got to thinking that they
[men] were all selfish and inconsiderate and would hurt you if you
gave them a chance.”

“The lonely life of Elizabeth Bishop”, The Economist

小儿经验带来的创伤让他内心充满了愤怒。那股愤怒化为忧伤,痛苦又化为了诗歌。

Whatever anger she felt in these early traumatic years turned into
sadness, and the sadness into poetry.

  • “Hiding in Plain Sight: The loneliness of Elizabeth Bishop”, *The
    Nation

长大后,毕晓普的心情生活也是一块坎坷。她此生最爱的半边天,巴西建筑师萝塔(Lota),于一九六八年自杀。后来的配偶Iris(Iris)也放弃了他,并嫁给了七个孩子他爹。

毕晓普与萝塔的避忌之恋被拍成一部十二分唯美的电影,Reaching for the
Moon
,西班牙(Spain)语片名Flores Raras,中译片名《月光诗篇》。

豆子电影

那部影片分外回味无穷,若有时间,不妨找来看看。

在打听毕晓普的人生之后,我们大概也就可见知道,为啥他说本身是中外最孤单的人了啊。


毕晓普先后失去二叔、大姨、伯公母、萝塔、阿丽丝,童年折腾于各类亲人家中,成年后又距离了温馨的家门。她的平生,充斥着告别与失去。在多级的打击之后,在得悉萝塔自杀、又去Alice的她靠近崩溃。可就像是悲哀总能与好诗挂钩,毕晓普在最消沉的时节里,写下了她最闻名的诗词,One
Art
,《一种方法》。

ca88网页版会员登录,But it was also at this low point on her high perch that she wrote,
over several painstaking drafts, what became her most anthologized and
best-loved poem, “One Art.”

“Hiding in Plain Sight: The loneliness of Elizabeth Bishop”, The
Nation

写下那首诗时,毕晓普内心充满痛楚,却在用力说服自身:失去,或然并没有那么可怕。她依旧在诗中,把「失去」称为一种方法。

诗在散装和泪水中写成,改了全数十七稿,正是如上文形容的那么,several
painstaking drafts,但改来改去,诗开篇第三句向来不曾变过:

Meanwhile, the poem’s recurring first line “The art of losing isn’t
hard to master
,” remained the same in all 17 drafts.

Coming to Terms with Loss in Elizabeth Bishop’s ‘One Art’ “, The
Atlantic

在影片《月光诗篇》中,Miranda·奥图扮演小说家毕晓普,完美细腻地演绎了那首诗(视频00’50 —
02’05)。如若场馆条件允许,请一定,一定,一定要看那段视频,真的卓殊感人。

比方只想听诗的话,看到2分05秒就够了,视频后半有个别是对作家毕晓普的牵线与评价。小说原文就在红尘,我们可以相比较阅读。

“One Art” by Elizabeth Bishop

The art of losing isn’t hard to master;
so many things seem filled with the intent
to be lost that their loss is no disaster.

Lose something every day. Accept the fluster
of lost door keys, the hour badly spent.
The art of losing isn’t hard to master.

Then practice losing farther, losing faster:
places, and names, and where it was you meant
to travel. None of these will bring disaster.

I lost my mother’s watch. And look! my last, or
next-to-last, of three loved houses went.
The art of losing isn’t hard to master.

I lost two cities, lovely ones. And, vaster,
some realms I owned, two rivers, a continent.
I miss them, but it wasn’t a disaster.

— Even losing you (the joking voice, a gesture
I love) I shan’t have lied. It’s evident
the art of losing’s not too hard to master
though it may look like (Write it!) like disaster.

毕晓普选取了一种极度古板的诗文格局,Villanelle,维拉内拉诗,是16世纪的法兰西共和国十分流行的一种文体。


维拉内拉诗又叫「十九行二韵体诗」,那之中的「十九行」很好掌握,诗刚好十九行呗。而「二韵体」则是指诗歌有三个韵脚。这一杂谈体裁对格式须求拾壹分严谨,除了押韵之外,还有两句诗须求按照规定举办再次。

(没看太懂?没事,下边有个例子)

维拉内拉诗最具代表性,只怕也是大家最熟习的,大概就是《星际穿越》中出现的七彩虹·托马斯的《不要温和地走进那些良夜》,Do
Not Go Gentle Into That Good Night

来听取曾赖以《沉默的羔羊》斩获Oscar视帝、在大热韩剧《东边世界》里再一次击溃观者的Anthony·霍普金斯爵士(Sir
AnthonyHopkins)朗读的版本吧——不由得说一句,一级好听的动静,我们耳朵可相对不要怀孕噢(哈哈哈哈哈哈哈)!

《不要温和地走进这三个良夜》

Do not go gentle into that good night, Old age should burn and rave at close of day;
Rage, rage against the dying of the light.
Though wise men at their end know dark is right,
Because their words had forked no lightning they
Do not go gentle into that good night.
Good men, the last wave by, crying how bright
Their frail deeds might have danced in a green bay,
Rage, rage against the dying of the light.
Wild men who caught and sang the sun in flight,
And learn, too late, they grieved it on its way,
Do not go gentle into that good night.
Grave men, near death, who see with blinding sight
Blind eyes could blaze like meteors and be gay,
Rage, rage against the dying of the light.
And you, my father, there on the sad height,
Curse, bless, me now with your fierce tears, I pray.
Do not go gentle into that good night.
Rage, rage against the dying of the light.

世家看来本人加粗的一对了吧?在维拉内拉诗中,有多少个句子会不断重复出现,专业术语叫做 Refrain,可以领略为「副歌」恐怕「叠句」。七个句子分别名为
Refrain 1 和 Refrain 2,简称 A1 和 A2。

在这首诗中,

Refrain 1(A1)
Do not go gentle into that good night

Refrain 2(A2)
Rage, rage against the dying of the light.

大家应该也只顾到了,这两行诗句不断重复出现。光是重复还不够,它们要严谨依据如下顺序现身:

Refrain 1 (A1) Line 2 (b)
Refrain 2 (A2)
Line 4 (a)
Line 5 (b)
Refrain 1 (A1)
Line 7 (a)
Line 8 (b)
Refrain 2 (A2)
Line 10 (a)
Line 11 (b)
Refrain 1 (A1)
Line 13 (a)
Line 14 (b)
Refrain 2 (A2)
Line 16 (a)
Line 17 (b)
Refrain 1 (A1)
Refrain 2 (A2)

*—— Wikipedia, “Villanelle”*

其间 Line 2,Line 4 等等,指的是小说的第X行,内容可以随心所欲,但 Refrain 1
和 Refrain 2 出现的职位一定是一贯的。

好了好了,解释完结,大家看回毕晓普的诗。


The art of losing isn’t hard to master; so many things seem filled with the intent
to be lost that their loss is no disaster.
Lose something every day. Accept the fluster
of lost door keys, the hour badly spent.
The art of losing isn’t hard to master.
Then practice losing farther, losing faster:
places, and names, and where it was you meant
to travel. None of these will bring disaster.
I lost my mother’s watch. And look! my last, or
next-to-last, of three loved houses went.
The art of losing isn’t hard to master.
I lost two cities, lovely ones. And, vaster,
some realms I owned, two rivers, a continent.
I miss them, but it wasn’t a disaster.
— Even losing you (the joking voice, a gesture
I love) I shan’t have lied. It’s evident
the art of losing’s not too hard to master
though it may look like (Write it!) like disaster.

One
Art
 那首诗中,有两行相似的诗歌也在不断重复出现。之所以说「相似」,是因为毕晓普没有严谨按照维拉内拉诗的格式须求,而是在差别的小节中对诗歌举行了迟早改动。

很明朗,诗歌的宗旨是「失去」。

早先时代,失去的是部分很小的事物。毕晓普称,有个别东西就像本来就是要错过的(so
many things seem filled with the intent to be lost),丢了也便不可惜。

随之,毕晓普说,有个别东西是每一日都有大概失去的(lose something every
day)。这个弄丢了的门钥匙(lost door keys),浪费了的时日(hour badly
spent),既然已经成为事实,又何须纠结烦扰,倒不如把「失去」当成一种格局。

下一场,她又轻轻地告诉读者,要练习「失去」那门艺术。那3个忘记了的名字(names),布置要去旅行却没能去成的地点(where
it was you meant to travel)。失去那些东西,并不会带来不幸。

接着,她最先用自身的人生经验举例,说她失去了丈母娘的手表(I lost my
mother’s watch)——
毕晓普四虚岁便与患上精神病的娘亲分别,从此再未见过,那块手表意义重大,所以才会油但是生在诗中;后边大家也事关,她小时候辗转于各样家里人的家中,失去了贰个又二个本人暴发了留恋的家(three
loved houses went)。

进而,她又说,本身离家乡土,失去了两座她深爱的都会(two
cities),甚至失去了河流与大陆(two rivers, a
continent)。她很驰念那整个,却也亮堂,哪怕失去了这么重大的东西,依旧算不上什么不幸(I
miss them, but it wasn’t a disaster)。

末尾,她终于提起自身失去的情侣(losing
you)。从劝读者,逐渐成为劝本人,她频频重复,就是为了暗示自个儿,「失去你」,或者并从未那么可怕。

但她的内心却洋溢了惨痛挣扎,甚至必要用第四个音响,(Write it!),来迫使本身把最狼狈的结尾写出来。

萝塔自杀,Iris也相差了他,那时的毕晓普如同不是在为读者写诗,而是把诗写给了和谐。她口口声声说「失去」算不上什么,可诗读下来,字里行间满篇都以心碎与痛楚。就如微微谎言,说多了,自个儿便先信了。


伊Lisa白·毕晓普晚年在新加坡国立大学任教。她马上的一名学员,Megan
马歇尔,二〇一七年问世了一本传记,名为Elizabeth Bishop: A Miracle for
Breakfast
,讲述了毕肖普的传说平生。

在不少网站上都能找到那本传记的书评,蕴含 《教育学人》,The
Economist
,以及《印度洋月刊》,The Atlantic,等经典杂志。

《London客》,The New
Yorker,还特地有成文介绍了毕晓普与萝塔和Alice之间的爱情典故,她杂文的灵感来源,等等。

世家假若感兴趣,可以在底下的参阅网页中找到相关链接。其它还有前文提到的摄像,《月光诗篇》,也可以找来看看。

嗯,好了,先聊到那时,我们早安。

One Art”, by Elizabeth Bishop https://www.poetryfoundation.org/poems/47536/one-art

Hiding in Plain Sight: The loneliness of Elizabeth Bishop”, The
Nation
https://www.thenation.com/article/hiding-in-plain-sight/

Elizabeth Bishop”, Poetry Foundation, https://www.poetryfoundation.org/poets/elizabeth-bishop

Elizabeth Bishop”, Wikipedia, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Elizabeth\_Bishop

伊Lisa白·毕晓普”, 汉语维基百科 https://zh.wikipedia.org/wiki/%E4%BC%8A%E4%B8%BD%E8%8E%8E%E7%99%BD%C2%B7%E6%AF%95%E6%99%93%E6%99%AE

The lonely life of Elizabeth Bishop“, The Economist https://www.economist.com/news/books-and-arts/21718852-new-biography-sheds-light-elizabeth-bishop-one-americas-finest-poets-lonely

Coming to Terms with Loss in Elizabeth Bishop’s ‘One Art’ “, The
Atlantic
https://www.theatlantic.com/notes/2017/04/coming-to-terms-with-loss-in-elizabeth-bishops-one-art/524154/

月色诗篇”,豆瓣电影 https://movie.douban.com/subject/20521014/?from=subject-page

独自孤独恒常如新”,豆瓣读书 https://book.douban.com/subject/26269845/

‘Elizabeth Bishop: A Miracle for Breakfast’ More of a Four-Course
Meal
“, The Harvard Crimson
http://www.thecrimson.com/article/2017/4/15/elizabeth-bishop-review/

Elizabeth and Alice“, The New Yorker https://www.newyorker.com/books/page-turner/elizabeth-bishop-and-alice-methfessel-one-art

Elizabeth Bishop’s Art of Losing“, The New Yorker https://www.newyorker.com/magazine/2017/03/06/elizabeth-bishops-art-of-losing

Elizabeth Bishop伊Lisa白·毕肖普诗选”,今日头条博客 http://blog.sina.com.cn/s/blog\_4b01ac520102vyge.html

Villanelle“, Wikipedia https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Villanelle

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